Important things to know

Market and Facts

CTL, Brent and PTL

Month CTL (China Truck LNG) Minus 12% x Brent* Pakistan Truck LNG (PTL)
USD/mmbtu USD/mmbtu PKR/tonne USD/mmbtu
Apr-20 6.66 7.46
May-20 6.14 6.05
Jun-20 5.92 4.24
Jul-20 6.50 3.19
Aug-20 6.59 3.52
Sep-20 6.79 4.52
Oct-20 8.11 5.13
Nov-20 10.28 5.16
Dec-20 14.01 5.03
Jan-21 13.51 4.95
Feb-21 11.33 5.31
Mar-21 8.15 5.90
Apr-21 8.54 6.68
May-21 9.42 7.30
Jun-21 10.31 7.70
Jul-21 11.47 7.95
Aug-21 15.03 8.26
Sept-21 15.95 8.67
Oct-21 17.38 8.76
Nov-21 21.03 8.82
Dec-21 14.45 9.15
Jan-22 12.93 9.56
Feb-22 19.60 9.55
Mar-22 24.58 9.67
Apr-22 23.18 10.31
May-22 19.29 12.04
Jun-22 16.85 12.76
Jul-22 17.03 13.41
Aug-22 18.25 13.63
Sept-22 18.07 13.92
Oct-22 18.30 13.4036
Nov-22 14.76 12.09
Dec-22 14.17 11.34
Jan-23 13.73 10.98
Feb-23 13.30 10.63
Mar-23 12.54 10.12
Apr-23 12.07 9.76

CTL Minus = CTL – TUA fee – VAT
TUA fee = Fee under Terminal Use Agreement.
VAT = Value-added Tax. LNG import in China is tax free but VAT of 9% applies with some exemptions

Brent here is based on 3+1+1 concept. Price at the month of settlement is calculated as average of the 3rd, 4th and 5th months prior to settlement

Sources: ENN Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), LNG Easy.

Learn some things about LNG

Questions And Answers

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been transformed to a liquid state by cooling at about -260°Fahrenheit (-162°C), for shipping and storage. The volume of LNG expands about 600 times from its liquid state to its gaseous state.

LNG is a way to monetize natural gas. It can be shipped in bulk or in packaged form (Iso Tank Containers) to ports and terminals. On land, LNG shipped in road tankers and Iso Tank Containers is an alternative to pipeline gas.

LNG is -162°C, at atmospheric pressure. It is colourless, odourless and non-toxic. LNG is classified as Dangerous Goods 2.1, making it a flammable gas. It is important to note that LNG is only flammable when the vapour concentration is 5 to 15% mixed with air.

The density of LNG ranges from around 425 to 470 kg per cubic meter depending on the temperature and composition, which is less than half of the density of water. In gas form, the vapour is lighter than air (at temperatures higher than about -120C), so the gas will rise if released to the atmosphere. In comparison, LPG is heavier than air and will collect at ground level.

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Get technical

Glossary of terms

Compress Natural Gas

Combined Heat Power, Combined Cold Heat Power. It’s an energy efficient technology that produces electricity and recovers waste heat that would provide useful thermal energy for heating or cooling. This way of generating power can work with the grid or off-grid, it improves the efficiency of fuel used to at least 70% or higher.

Floating Storage Regassification Unit. It is a LNG receiving solution to supply to gas pipeline network on shore

International Oil Companies / National Oil Companies
Independent Power Producers
T75 Tank Container which is built to the ISO standards (International Organisation for Standardisation)
Mobile Filling Pontoon designed and built by LNGe which can also work as pre-fabricated Manifold platform. This is a jettyless solution to transfer LNG to shore. The Term MFP is trademark registered in Singapore.

“Green STS” is a STS Operation with most of the BOG captured for productive consumption

Master Sale & Purchase Agreement – Contracts for procurement spot LNG cargoes
Short for “Person in Overall Advisory Control” – key person in charge of STS operations

Traditionally bulk LNG sale & purchase are done on a government-to-government and large business-to-business basis (ie, between International Oil Companies(IOC) / National Oil Companies (NOC)). The traditional offtakers are NOCs, large scale power utilities, national pipeline companies, large scale traders, which require dedicated infrastructure and shipping investment.

Retail LNG refers to small industry and commercial customers, transport users, residential users (for LNG dewar), selling to which requires breakbulk and liquid distribution network onland. This term is different from so-called SSLNG which implies ocean shipping by small LNG carriers.

Singapore LNG terminal
Small Scale LNG Ships
Ship-to-ship transfer of LNG

It is a line of distribution without the physical pipeline, is an alternative way of distributing gas in liquid (LNG) form, as opposed to using pipeline.

Construction of pipeline is often a major undertaking which needs careful planning and big capex spending, and it can be plagued right-of-way and issues with squatters in developing countries. Pipeline network is not flexible as it will be limited by its outreach.

On the other hand, virtual pipeline – transportation of LNG by trucks to end-customers who are equipped with small scale regassification equipment. Virtual pipeline is used interchangeably with Liquid distribution.

It is the transportation of LNG by bowser or iso tank container on semi-trailer. It is the transport leg of RetailLNG, synonymous with “Virtual Pipeline”.
Nitrogen oxides
Sulfur oxides
PMx defines particles with a size smaller than “x” micrometers (e.g., PM2.5 = particles smaller than 2.5 μm)